How to Keep Elephants and Wolves Out of Your Yard

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Created by Henry Reich
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References:

Ausband, D.E. 2010. Pilot study report for using a biofence to manipulate wolf pack movements in central Idaho. Montana Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit.
http://www.umt.edu/mcwru/personnel/ausband/docs/biofence_pilot_test_report_2010.pdf

Ausband, D.E.  (2011) Biofence: A Novel, Non-Lethal Tool for Deterring Wolf/Livestock Conflicts. Montana Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit. https://awionline.org/sites/default/files/uploads/documents/wild-csaward-biofence-070411.pdf

Beachy R.N. (1997) Mechanisms and applications of pathogen-derived resistance in transgenic plants. Current Opinions in Biotechnology 8(2): 215–220. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9079736

Beachy R.N., Loesch-Fries S., and Tumer N. (1990) Coat protein-mediated resistance against virus infection Annual Review of Phytopathology 28: 451-472. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.py.28.090190.002315?journalCode=phyto

Ferreira, S.A., Pitz, K.Y., Manshardt, R., Zee, F., Fitch, M., and Gonsalves, D. (2002) Virus coat protein transgenic papaya provides practical control of papaya ringspot virus in Hawaii. Plant Disease 86: 101–105. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/doi/abs/10.1094/PDIS.2002.86.2.101

Gonsalves, D. and Ferreira, S. (2003) Transgenic papaya: a case for managing risks of papaya ringspot virus in Hawaii. Plant Health Progress. http://naldc.nal.usda.gov/naldc/download.xhtml?id=2913&content=PDF

King, L.E., Douglas-Hamilton, I. and Vollrath, F. (2011) Beehive fences as effective deterrents for crop-raiding elephants: field trials in northern Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 49(4): 431-39. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2028.2011.01275.x/abstract

King, L.E., Lawrence, A., Douglas-Hamilton, I. and Vollrath, F. (2009)
Beehive fence deters crop-raiding elephants. African Journal of Ecology 47(2): 131–137. http://www.eci.ox.ac.uk/publications/downloads/king2009-beehive.pdf

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Video Credits:

Deer jumping over fence
Footage by: Youtube user musselshell
youtube.com/watch?v=eV23yzJIPWo

Photo credits:

Cow Peeing
Photo by: Richard Bartz
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bos_taurus_taurus_peeing.jpg

Bos Taurus sideview
Photo by: Richard Bartz
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bos_taurus_taurus_sideview.JPG

Bos Taurus sideview 2
Photo by: Wikimedia user Irmgard
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Simmentaler_Fleckvieh.jpg

Sagalla beehive fence
Photo by: Lucy King

Homepage

Timber_wolves_fighting
Photo by: Martin Cathrae
Timber Wolves Fighting

Timber_wolves
Photo by: Martin Cathrae
Timber Wolves Fighting

Papaya Guanica
Photo by: David Jenkins / EntomologyLabPR
http://entomologylabpr.blogspot.com/2013/02/what-does-aphid-see-implications-for.html

Elephant
Photo by: Wkimedia user Charlesjsharp
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:African_Elephant_walking.JPG

Bee
Photo by: Bob Peterson
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Honey_Bee_on_Willow_Catkin_(5419305106).jpg

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