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Directory of Vocabulary and Rule Book

Vocabulary Rules book on different topics used for making sentences Sita, Ram, India, Gwalior, boy, student, crowd, fleet, herd, quality, action, state, obedience, growth, Book, pen, milk, honesty, hero, cock-sparrow, heroine, hen-sparrow, parent, child, student 

  1. A verb must agree with its subject in Number and Person. The verb is made to agree in number with a noun near it instead of its proper subject. The knowledge of Indian vernaculars is far beyond the uncommon
  2. Two or more singular nouns or pronouns joined by and require a plural verb. Knowledge and wisdom have of times no connection, He and I were reading. 
  3. If the nouns suggest one idea to the mind or refer to the same person or thing, the verb is singular. Time and tide wait for no man, Honour, and glory is his reward, My mentor and counselor has come
  4. Words joined to a singular subject by with, as well as, etc are parenthetical. The verb should be put in the singular. Hindi as well as English, was taught there, hard work, as well as determination, brings success.
  5. Two or more singular subjects connected by or nor require a singular verb. Our happiness or our sorrow is largely due to our own actions, Neither praise nor blame seems to affect him.
  6. When one of the subjects joined by or nor is plural, the verb should be plural. Neither the Chairman nor the directors are present’
  7. When the subjects joined by or nor are different persons, the verb agrees with the nearer. Either he or I am mistaken, Either he or I am mistaken 
  8. Either, neither, each, everyone, many a, must be followed by a singular verb neither of the two men was very strong. Every one of the boys loves to read
  9. Two nouns qualified by each or every even though connected by and require a singular verb. Every boy and every girl was given a book of English
  10. Some nouns which are plural in form, but singular in meaning, take a singular verb. Some news is true
  11. Pains or means take either the singular or the plural verb, but the construction must be consistent. Great pains have been taken, Much pains have been taken.
  12. In the of income, the word means always takes a plural verb. His means are ample 
  13. Some nouns which are singular in form, but plural in meaning take a plural verb, According to the present market rate twelve dozen cost one hundred rupees 
  14. None, though properly singular, commonly takes a plural verb. None are so deaf as those who will not hear.
  15. A committee has issued its report, The committee is divided on one minor point, The committee has appended a note to its(not their)report
  16. When the plural noun is a proper name for some single object or some collective unit, it must be followed by a singular verb, The united nations have a big navy,
  17. When a plural noun denotes some specific quantity or some amount considered as a whole, the verb is generally singular, fifty minutes is allowed for each candidate, ten kilometers is a long walk

Noun and Pronouns

  1. Countable nouns like a book, table, flower have plural forms and are used with a and an. The uncountable nouns also have plural forms of the verb but without the use of a and an. eg, he gave me some advice, the scenery here is very good.apiece of advice, a piece of work, a bottle of milk
  2. The use of possessive(or genetic) case should be confined to names of living beings and personified objects, stereotyped phrases, nouns of space or time denoting an amount of something e.g.Natures law, fortunes favorite, for goodness sake, at his fingers ends, in a years time
  3. When two nouns in the possessive case are in apposition the apostrophe withs is added to the last only as This is my facilitators, the adviser’s office
  4. When one noun is qualified by two possessive nouns both must have the possessive sign whose joint possession is indicated king and journey in India, the complement of the verb to be, when it is expressed by 
  5. A pronoun should be in the nominative case. We usually use an objective form. It is me(it is rarely said it is I), It was him
  6. An object of a verb or of a preposition, when it is a pronoun, should be in an objective form as There is no difference between you and me, let you and me (not I) do it
  7.  A pronoun directly after that or as is usually in the objective case unless there is a verb after it. If a verb follows it, the nominative form is used. He is taller than me, I am as tall as he is
  8. A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in person number and gender all learners must complete their homework, every learner must do his own work
  9. If referring to anybody, everybody, everyone, anyone, each etc.the pronoun of the masculine or the feminine gender is used according to the context as I shall be glad to help every one of my students in his studies, Anybody can do it if he tries 
  10. At present anybody, everyone, etc. is often followed by a plural pronoun. Anybody can do it if they try
  11. The indefinite pronoun one should be used throughout if used at all. One can not be too careful of ones (not he) good name, one must use one’s best efforts if one wishes to success
  12. None is construed in singular or plural as the sense may require. Have you done your homework? there was none in the copy.none of these words are now used 
  13. Anyone should be used when more than two persons or things are spoken of. He was taller than any one of his friends
  14. Each, either and neither are distributive pronouns calling attention to the individuals forming a collection and must accordingly be followed by a verb in the singular. Each of the learners has(not have) done well, either of the roads leads to the success
  15. Be careful to use who(nominative) and whom(objective) correctly. I was the boy who(not whom) they thought was the winner, whom do you wish to see, who did you meet, who are you going with
  16. When the subject of a verb is relative pronoun care be taken to see that the verb agrees in number and person with the antecedent of the relative as He is one of the cleverest boys that have passed through the school. This is one of his best answers that is (not are)worth reading. Here that is one is antecedent.
  17. A definite word as the antecedent of the relative pronoun which makes the sentences easier to understand than is possible otherwise as He fell heavily, and this caused him great pain.
  18. And which, but which-The relatives fulfills the purpose of conjunction. Hence no conjunction should be placed before it except to join together two relative clauses
  19. Referring to the same antecedent as He possessed notes which was excellent and which had won him good marks
  20. Some times a pronoun is inserted where it is not required as The applicant being a householder, he(not required) is entitled to vote
  21. A noun is a pronoun in the possessive case should not be used as the antecedent to a relative pronoun as Do not forget the enthusiasm who brought this movement so far
  22. When the relative pronoun is wrongly omitted when it is the subject of the clause as he has an intelligence that would carry him through anything
  23. When the antecedent is the same, the consequent should be as or that as I played with the same bat that you did
  24. Pronouns of the third person should not be used as antecedents to who and that
  25. Avoid the use of the same as a substitute for the personal pronoun as when you have examined these patterns please return them(not same) to us.

Adjectives

The adjective is correctly used with a verb when some quality of the subject, rather than of the action of the verb as It tastes sour, He feels happy those are often used with the singular nouns kind and sort as things of this kind The word superior, inferior, senior, junior, prior, anterior, and posterior take to instead of then as He is senior to me, Hari is inferior to Ram in intelligence

In comparing two things or classes of things the comparatives should be used as of the two suggestions, the former is the better, He is taller than the two 

Double comparatives and superlatives are to be avoided as It was the unkindest cut of al

A very common form of error is exemplified as The population of Calcutta is greater than that of any city in India

  1. Of any is often used incorrectly as He has the lightest touch of any musician. It should be He has a lighter touch than any other musician.
  2. Preferable has the force of a comparative and is followed by to as he has a formula which he thinks preferable to that of any other formula
  3. Less is used before uncountable nouns while fewer is used before plural nouns fewer than forty students were qualified in the test.
  4.  Words like unique, ideal, perfect, complete, universal, entire, extreme, chief, square, round do not admit comparison.as most unique is wrong
  5. Older and oldest may be said either of the person or of the things, while elder and eldest apply to the persons only
  6. Two firsts are inappropriate. It should be the first two
  7. Few and a few have different meanings. Few are negative and equivalent to not many, hardly any while a few are positive and equivalent to some. Similarly is the case of little and a little
  8. Latter is used when there are two only and last is used when there are more than two
  9. Verbal (pertaining to words) is often used for oral(means delivered).

Verb

Subject of the sentence should not be left without a verb as He who has suffered most in the cause, let him speak(incorrect), He who has suffered most in the cause should speak

A verb should agree with its subject and not with the complements The details are a matter of future consideration.

  1. In a compound sentence a single can be made to do the duty for two subjects, only when the form of the verb is such as to permit of it as not a sound was heard, not a procession
  2. Two auxiliaries can be used with one principal Verb, only when the form of a principal verb is appropriate to both the auxiliaries as I never have shirked my responsibilities and will never.

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