After understanding this lesson you will learn the art of making a sentence, fill up the blanks, correct sentences, and write proper sentences keeping seven concepts of conversation in view
It is essential to speak and write correct sentences not only to explain clearly but also to keep a professional image of the organization.
You will come across many known terms while you are making sentences utilizing the following suggested structures. It is better to recapitulate to make the mind clear while making sentences.The terms are:
A subject complement is a predicative expression that follows a linking verb and that complements the subject of the sentence by either renaming it or describing it. “If a verb requires a subject complement (SC) to complete the sentence, the verb is a linking verb. The subject complement ([italicized] in the examples that follow) typically identifies or characterizes the person or thing denoted by the subject:
Sandra is my mother’s name.
Your room must be the one next to mine.
The upstairs tenant seemed a reliable person.
A university is a community of scholars.
The receptionist seemed very tired.
You should be more careful.
The distinction became quite clear.
The corridor is too narrow.
Other common linking verbs (with examples of subject complements in parentheses) include appear (the best plan), become (my neighbor), seem (obvious), feel (foolish), get (ready), look (cheerful), sound (strange). Subject complements are typically noun phrases, as in above, or adjective phrases, as in above.”
Direct and indirect object
Ram threw the ball. Who threw the ball Ram. A ball is an object.
Ram gave Shyam a ball. A ball is an object or Direct object. Shyam has become an indirect object.
In analyzing the sentence further it will be a position of an indirect object is after the verb and before the direct object
A preposition is a word placed before a noun or pronoun to show in what relationship the person or thing denoted by it stands in regard to something else.
An infinitive is a base of a verb, often preceded by to. It is also known as verb-noun. He refused to take the orders. Infinitives are used as a subject of a verb(to find fault is easy), object of a transitive verb(I do not mean to read), as the complement of a verb(His greatest pleasure is to read), as an object of a preposition(The speaker is about to begin). It is also used to qualify a verb(We eat to live-purpose), to qualify an adjective(The boys are anxious to learn), to qualify a noun(this is not the time to play), to qualify a sentence
In verbs (bid, let, make, need, dare, see, hear, will, would, shall, should, may, might, can, could, must, had better, had rather, sooner than, rather than) we use the infinitive without using to infinitives when used as night is called a simple infinitive
Gerundial infinitive when does the work of an adverb or an adjective or adverb is called Qualifying infinitive.
Participle.it is a word which is partly a verb and partly an adjective infinitive which has for
Participle which represents an action as going on or incomplete or imperfect, and ends in ing are called Present participle.
Past participle represents a completed action or state of the thing spoken of. Past participle usually ends in-ed,-d,-t,-en, or –n
A gerund is that form of a verb which ends in ing and has the force of a noun and a verb
- You have studied about communication system and system of making sentences. Also you have studied about parts of speech which are of eight types and each part of speech has its own role to play and it is your skill which you can use the right word at right place
Important terms to know
A subject complement is a word or phrase that follows a linking verb and describes or identifies the subject. (Note: A linking verb is a verb used to link a subject to the new identity or description. Common examples are to be, to become, to appear, to feel, to look, to smell, and to taste.)
A subject complement is either an adjective, a noun, or a pronoun.
In the examples below, the linking verbs are in bold and the subject complements are shaded:
Ben is a policeman. (The linking verb is is (i.e., the verb to be). The subject complement identifies the subject, Ben. It is a noun.)
He will be fine.
(The linking verb is will be (i.e., the verb to be). The subject complement describes the subject He. It is an adjective.)
I am he.
(The linking verb is am (i.e., the verb to be). The subject complement identifies subject I. It is a pronoun.)
That pie looks burnt to a cinder.
(The linking verb is looks. The subject complement describes the subject That pie. It is an adjective. Don’t forget adjectives (just like nouns) also come in the form of phrases.)
More Examples of Subject Complements
Here are some more examples of subject complements:
Ella was a ghost. She appeared at 12 and looked stunning.
Opportunity is missed by most people because it is dressed in overalls and looks like work.
(Remember, adjectives and nouns can come in the forms of adjective phrases and noun phrases too.)
If you put butter and salt on popcorn, it tastes like salty butter.
As for me, except for an occasional heart attack, I feel as young as I ever did.
A direct object is a noun or pronoun that receives the action of a “transitive verb” in an active sentence or shows the result of the action. It answers the question “What?” or “Whom?” after an action verbPlay the guitar.Every actor played his part. The crowd will cheer the President.
The indirect object of a sentence is the recipient of the direct object. Every sentence must contain a verb. Most verbs have a direct object (the thing being acted upon). For example:
Paula passed the parcel.
(The direct object is the parcel. There is no recipient in this sentence. Therefore, there is no indirect object.)
Some sentences tell us about the recipient. That’s the indirect object. For example, Paula passed her father the parcel.
(The indirect object (i.e., the recipient) is her father.)
Here are some examples of indirect objects (shaded):
Simon gave his uncle a dirty look.
(his uncle – indirect object)
Paula passed the money to her father. (her father – indirect object)
(Note: Sometimes, the indirect object will follow a preposition like to or for.) Let him have it. (him – indirect object)
(Note: When the indirect object is a pronoun, the pronoun must be in the objective case.)
Shall I tell the children our ghost story tonight? (the children – indirect object)
Before you can find the indirect object, you have to find the direct object. You can find the direct object by finding the verb and asking what?. Once you’ve found the direct object, ask who or what received it? For example:
She gave the beggar a gold coin.
(Step 1. Find the verb = gave)
(Step 2. Ask What? = a gold coin)
(Therefore, the direct object is a gold coin.)
(Step 3. Ask Who (or what) received it? = the beggar)
(Therefore, the indirect object is the beggar.)
Remember, once you have found the direct object, you have to ask who (or what) received it to find the indirect object. Only Transitive Verbs Have Direct Objects and Indirect Objects
A verb that takes a direct object is called a transitive verb. A few verbs do not have a direct object. They are known as intransitive verbs. For example:
Jonathan skidded on the ice.
(Step 1. Find the verb = skidded)
(Step 2. Ask What? = Nothing. You can’t skid something.)
(Therefore, there is no direct object. The verb to skid is intransitive.) Lee is snoring heavily.
(Step 1. Find the verb = is snoring)
(Step 2. Ask What? = Nothing. You can’t snore something.)
(Therefore, there is no direct object. The verb to snore is intransitive.) Do Not Confuse Complements with Direct Objects
If you ask what? with a linking verb, you will find a verb complement, not a direct object. For example:
Johnathan was angry.
(Step 1. Find the verb = was)
(Step 2. Ask What? = angry.)
(However, on this occasion, angry is not the direct object. This is because was (i.e., the verb to be) is a linking verb.)
Johnathan seemed uncomfortable.
(Step 1. Find the verb = seemed)
(Step 2. Ask What? = uncomfortable.)
(However, uncomfortable is not the direct object. This is because to seem is a linking verb.)
- Prepositional objects and indirect objects are alike in that they require a mediating element (a preposition or a direct object). The correspondence is particularly close with indirect objects and corresponding prepositional construction: Indirect object He [gave] Carrie a ring.
- The subject-verb you Are reading
- Subject-verb Subject complement His brother became An officer
- Subject-verb Direct Object (complement) Who Broke The jug
- subject verb Indirect object Direct object The teacher gave us homework
- subject verb Direct object preposition Prepositional object The teacher gave homework to All of us
- subject verb Noun/Pronoun adjective
The teacher wanted Students qualified
- Subject-verb Preposition Prepositional object we Are waiting for the teacher
- Subject-verb To-infinitive(as an object of a verb) He wants To go
- Subject-Verb Noun/pronoun To-infinitive I Would like you To write
- Subject-Verb Gerund etc
He began writing
- Subject-Verb Noun/pronoun Present participle I Saw him Finishing work
- subject Verb Noun/Pronoun Plain infinitive we made students Discipline well
- Subject-Verb Noun/Pronoun Past Participle I heard My name called
- Subject-Verb Noun/Pronoun (to be)complement I consider The suggestion To be productive
- Subject-Verb That-clause(object of the verb)
We hoped That-you would succeed
Subject-Verb Noun/Pronoun That clause Teacher promised Us that he Is ready to revise
Subject-Verb Interrogative+ clause
He asked Me when you had gone
Subject-verb Noun/pronoun Interrogative clause Teacher Asked me When you had gone
He knows How to write a letter
subject verb Noun/pronoun Interrogative+to+infinite Teacher Has taught me How to write sentence
Question tag Are you reading? Are you
Mohan does not read Does he
Short answers Do ram work hard Yes, he does
Agreement English is an easy subject Yes, it is
Disagreement He does not like reading No, it is not true
There are eight types of parts of speech
1.There+be Subject etc
2.Subject+verb Adjective To infinitive I am eager To join the army
3.It+be adjective Of+noun/pronoun To+infinitive etc
It is a kind Of you To teach us
4.Subject+verb AdjectiveTo infinitive etc The English is easy To understand
5.It+be adjective To+infinitive etc
It is easy To learn English
6.It+be Gerundial phrase It is no good Asking him for help
7.It+be Adjective/Noun Noun clause It is strange That he could qualify for the test
8.It+to take+Time phrase to infinitive etc It took me Fifteen minutes To read this passage
9.Subject+verb Too adjective adverb To infinitive I am Too busy To attend the homework
- Subject+verb Adjective adverb+enough To infinitive He is Clever enough To understand it
- Subject+verb So+adjective adverb That+clause He walks So fast That I could not catch him
- what+adjective+noun Subject+verb
What an intelligent boy He is
How+Adjective .adverb Subject+verb How cleve You are
- If clause simple present Main clause(will/shall/can/may)+infinitive If you study hard You will get 85%marks
- if clause+simple past Main clause(will/shall/can/may)+infinitive If we started now We could finish in time