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Communication skills with emphasis on Language (English)

We communicate with each other by using sentences. We are familiar with sentences that are made using words properly connected. Therefore steps to make a sentence are how words are connected, vocabulary development, problems with word selection, and how to connect these words to make a sentence which is conveying sense. Each word is utilized differently so how to differentiate them or use them as per laid down rule.

How to make a sentence

There is a feeling among students that the English language is difficult while it is not so. It is as easy as the language you are using I .e.Hindi since birthhood.No teacher was utilized to teach the language you are using to convey your Thoughts at home. Learn the same way English.

Knowledge of alphabets(There are 26 alphabets A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z. Alphabets are further divided into vowels a, e, I, o, u and others are consonants

How to make words with help of alphabets and classification of words as per their use.

Words are placed for making the different types of sentences and they are used for communication as per the situation. Words as per kind are called parts of speech- Noun, pronoun, verb, adverb, adjective, preposition, conjunction, and interjection.

. A sentence is a group of words that makes complete sense. The sentence can perform four kinds of functions:

  • A sentence that states or declares something is called a Declarative sentence or a statement as the sun rises in the east, boys were reading in the library
  • A sentence that asks a question is called an interrogative sentence or a question as to where is your notebook.
  • A sentence that expresses a command, a request or a desire is called an imperative sentence as Please complete your homework by tomorrow.
  • Sentence that expresses some strong or sudden feeling is called an exclamatory sentence or an exclamation as to which book you are reading?

Subject and Predicate

Study the sentence. In each sentence, we talk about some thing., person or thing.

Words

Rule 1 Words started with a vowel or vowel-like sound are preceded with article an.

When we speak or write we use words. Words when utilized in the formation of sentences are termed as parts of speech. They play a definite, prescribed role. The parts of speech are eight in number namely Noun, Pronoun, Verb, Adjective, Adverb, preposition, conjunction, and interjection. Their specific roles are as per their definition given below;

The noun is the word used as the name of a person, place, or thing. All naming words are nouns. Nouns can be classified into five categories i.e. Proper noun (a special name of a particular person or thing or a place, Manish, Gwalior), common noun (A noun which does not point out to any particular person, place, or thing but is common to all persons or things of the same class, book, king), collective noun (stands for a collection of persons or things, considered as one complete whole, crowd, tribe, audience, team), material noun (names of material or substance of which a thing is made .Gold, wood) and abstract noun (things which one can only feel and ideas that one cannot touch but can express like quality, action, state, feeling, sound, homework).

Noun-Gender. Nouns like living being have two genders-Masculine (boy) and feminine (girl). Things without life or neither masculine nor feminine are called Neuter gender. (Wood) and things neither male nor female is called a common gender.Parent,child,friend

Noun (number).A noun that denotes one person or thing is a singular person and if more than one person is called a plural person.

Noun-case. There are three case-Nominative cases (when a noun is used as a subject of a verb, it is said to be a Nominative case. e.g he read a book), Objective(when the noun is used as the object of a verb, it is said to be or accusative case e.g The book was read by him ) and possessive case (when noun shows possession or ownership.origin or kind e.g. Ramas book was read by him). we also name the fourth case as vocative cases.e. name of a person or thing addressed.come on Ra Most sentences have a subject noun and an object noun. For example, Ram reads the books on leadership some common words used as a noun are Girl, Boy, city, country, capital, Gwalior, Kalidas, crowd, fleet, army, herd, quality, action, state, one, sister, gold, milk, honesty, lion, lioness, pen, book, lord, lady, king, queen, Man, woman, Actor, Actress, class, classes, lady, ladies, trousers thanks, people commander-in-chief, brother, brothers

Nouns in apposition. When one noun follows another to describe it, the noun which follows is said to be in apposition to the noun which comes before i.e. Manish, our monitor got 90 marks(apposition means placing near)

The teacher gave Rashmi a book. Rashmi is the direct object (whom) and the book is the indirect object (what)

Pronoun is a word used to add something to the meaning of a noun. A pronoun is a word that can be used instead of a noun when a noun has already been mentioned Pronouns are of five kinds: Personal pronoun(words used in place of a person. I, me, myself, mine, my, we, ourselves, us, our, ourselves, you, yourself, your, he, she, his, her, his, it, itself, there, they, themselves, them), Reflexive pronoun, emphasizing pronoun, demonstrative pronoun (used to point out the objects to which they refer.e.g.this, that, these, those), relative pronoun(refer or relates to some noun going before which i

Rules to remember.

Most sentences have a subject noun and an object noun. For example, Ram reads the books on leadership Some common words used as nouns are Girl, Boy, city, country, capital, Gwalior, Kalidas, crowd, fleet, army, herd, quality, action, state, one, sister, gold, milk, honesty, lion, lioness, pen, book, lord, lady, king, queen, Man, woman, Actor, Actress, class, classes, lady, ladies, trousers thanks, people commander-in-chief, brother, brothers

Rule 2.countable nouns have a plural form and are used with a/an. Normally uncountable nouns do not have a plural form and cannot be used with a/an.

Rule3.The possessive (or genitive) case should be confined to names of the living being and personified objects e.g. Natures law, few stereotype phrases e.g. for goodness sake at his fingers ends, noun of space, or time denoting an amount of something e.g. a day’s work. in a year

Rule 4.When two nouns in the possessive case are in apposition the apostrophe with s is added to the last only as this is my friend’s study room.

Rule 5.When one noun is qualified by two possessive nouns both must have the possessive sign unless joint possession is indicated e.g. USA and Russian president’s visit to India

Rule 6.complement of the verb to be, when it is expressed by a pronoun, should be in a Nominative case. We usually use Objective form these days. e.g It is me(not I), It was him

Rule 7. The object of a verb or a preposition, when it is pronoun should be in the objective form as between you and me reading look smart, let me and you do it.

Rule 8.A pronoun directly after than or as usually in the objective case unless there is a verb after it. If the verb follows it, the nominative form is used. as he is taller than me

Rule 9. A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in person, number, and gender

e.g. I am not one of those who believe everything they hear (not I).

Rule10.In referring to anybody, everybody, everyone, anyone, everyone, each, etc pronoun of the masculine gender should be used e.g. anybody can do it if they try, everyone ran as fast as he could.

In the present day anybody, everyone, etc are often followed by a plural pronoun (they, them, they’re) anybody can do it if they try.

Rule 11. The indefinite pronoun one should be used throughout if used at all.e.g.one should not boast one’s success, one must use one’s best efforts if one wishes to succeed

Rule 12. The noun is constructed in the singular or plural as the sense may require as did you buy any dictionary? There were none in the market

Rule 13. Anybody should be used when more than two persons or things are spoken as He was taller than any one of his class

Rule 14.An adjective is a word used to add something to the meaning of a noun. There are eight kinds of Adjectives: quantity, quality, number, demonstrative, Interrogative, Possessive, distributive, Proper adjective.

Rule 15. A verb is a word used to express an action or state or say about a subject. A verb that requires an object after it to complete its sense is called a transitive verb. A verb that does not require an object to complete its sense, but makes good sense by itself is called an intransitive verb. Verbs which do not complete sense, but requires some word after them for this purpose are called verbs of incomplete prediction. A word so added is called the complement.

Rule 16. V2 verb is used to express the mood of another verb or mode of the action denoted by the main verb. Modals include the auxiliary verbs shall, will, should, would, can, could, may, might, must, ought, need, dare, some, simple tenses. Tenses refer to the time of an action that is present, past, and future. It also shows the degree of completeness of the action that is continuous, complete, and going to complete. Each tense has four forms. However, all the forms are not used? 

Adverb is a word used to add something to the meaning of a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. Adverbs are of six kinds: of manner, of place, of time, of frequency, of degree, and interrogative adverbs

  1. A preposition is a word used with a noun or a pronoun to show how the person or thing denoted by the noun or pronoun stands concerning something else.i.e. on, in, during, on, by, for, without, behind, at, about, besides, against, between, among, opposite, in front of, ahead of, as for as, close to, away from, next to, in between, onboard, up to, on top of, all over Prepositions.
    1. The prepositional object-The object of a preposition is the noun or pronoun governed by a preposition.
  2. The object of a preposition is usually (but not always) the noun or pronoun immediately to the right of the preposition.
    1. Infinitive-Infinitive is the base of a verb, often preceded by to. The infinitive is kind of a noun with certain features of the verb, especially that of taking an object (when the verb is transitive) and adverbial qualifier. In short, the infinitive is verb-noun. In verbs (bid, let, make, need, dare, see, hear)we use the infinitive without to eg I made him run, you need not do it todayInfinitives are used as the subject of a noun, object of a transitive verb, complement of a verb, object of a preposition, objective complement, qualify a verb, qualify an adjective, qualify a noun, qualify a sentence

.Gerund-A gerund is that form of the verb which ends in- ing and has the force of a noun and a verb. As both the gerund and infinite have the force of a noun and a verb, they both have the same uses. Thus in many sentences, either of them may be used without any special difference in meaning as Teach me to swim, Teach me swimmingPresent participle. A participle is that form of the verb which partakes of nature both of a verb and an adjective or is a verbal Adjective. Present participle ends in –ing and represents an action as going on or incomplete or imperfect

Six more rules to know

A preposition is a word placed before a noun or pronoun to show relation to the person or thing denoted by it stands regarding something else. Eg There is a cow (noun) in the field,(noun)He(pronoun) is fond(adjective) of playing, He kicked(verb) of the football(noun).

  1. , A noun or pronoun which is used with a preposition is called an Object.
    1. .A prepositions may have two or more objects. The road runs over hill and plain
    2. .A preposition is usually placed before its object but sometimes it follows it, Here is the chapter that you are looking for., what are you thinking of, which of these chairs did you sit on.

Kinds of pronoun.Simple. at, by, for, from, in, of, off, on, out, through, till to, up, with Compound (formed by prefixing a preposition a or be) preposition. about, above, across, along, amidst, among, around, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, inside, outside, underneath, within, without.

Phrase preposition (words used with the force of a single preposition)-according to, agreeable by, along with, away from, because of, by dint of, employing, because of, under, by way of, conformably to, for the sake of, under, in addition to, on behalf of, in case of, in comparison to, in compliance with, in consequence of, in course of, in favor of, in front of, instead of, to, in place of, about, regarding, in spite of, instead of, in the event of, on account of, owing to, with a view to, with an eye to, concerning, with regard to 21. Barring, concerning, considering, during, notwithstanding, pending, regarding, respecting, touching a few verbs which are present participles of a verb are used without any noun or pronoun being attached to it, They are sometimes distinguished as Participial preposition.

  • Relations expressed by Preposition.
  • Place.went about the world, ran across the road, leaned against the wall, fell among thieves, quarreled among themselves, at death door, sit on the deck, stood before the door,
  • A conjunction is a word used to join words or sentences
  • An interjection is a word which expresses some sudden feeling
  • Some writing mistakes are very common like Spelling, Punctuation, Grammar, and words like;

Affect / Effect. Affect is a verb, for example, “Sometimes, the weather affects my mood.”The effect is a noun, for example, “The effect of weather on ice cream sales is well documented.”

Apostrophes, Apostrophes strike fear into the heart of many. However by learning a few simple rules, and the inevitable exceptions, you should be able to use apostrophes with ease. The apostrophe is used for a purpose, either to indicate a possession (implying ownership) or a contraction (in place of other letters). Since its use to indicate a contraction is easiest, we will deal with this first. Using Apostrophes to Indicate Contraction

Where one or more letters have been dropped, an apostrophe is used as a replacement: It is = it’s, We are = we’re, Does not = Doesn’t, Of the clock = o’clock Using Apostrophes to Indicate Possession. Apostrophes are also used to indicate possession: Matthew’s car, The farmer’s field (one field owned by one farmer)

If the subject (the farmer or Matthew above) has a name ending with an s, then there is a choice to either follow the formal rule (“The Jones’s house”) or to drop the final ‘s’ (hence “The Jones’ house”). The choice is a matter of style but the important thing is to be consistent.

If the subject is plural, the apostrophe is placed after the s: The teachers’ staff room, The farmers’ fields (multiple fields owned by multiple farmers). Note that if the word is already plural, for example, children or people, then you would write children’s or people’s.

When Not to Use Apostrophes. If the word is plural then do not use an apostrophe (for example kittens or apostrophes). Placing an apostrophe before the finals are universally considered incorrect and commonly referred to as the “greengrocer’s apostrophe” (or “greengrocers’ apostrophe” if referring to more than one greengrocer).

There are possible exceptions to these rule is if the word comprises a single letter, a number, or an abbreviation where the simple addition of an s could cause confusion. Hence:

There are two t’s in Matthew.

To write “There are two ts in Matthew” may confuse the reader even though it is grammatically correct. Alternatively, you could rephrase this as “There are two “t”s in Matthew”.

However, the modern convention is to avoid using apostrophes in plurals wherever possible even in the plural of numbers and abbreviations.

For example, “I keep buying DVDs” and “He loves 80s music” is preferable to add an apostrophe.

Could have / Should have / Would have. Even though we might pronounce “could’ve” (a contraction of “could have”) as “could of” this is incorrect. Always use could have / should have / would have.

It’s / Its. It’s is a contraction of two words: it is or it has. Its is possessive, like hers, his, and whose.

The confusion between it’s and its occurs because virtually every other word’s (apostrophe + s) indicates possession, so English speakers naturally want to use it’s to mean “something belonging to it.”

But ‘it’s’ is only used when it is a contraction of ‘it is’ or ‘it has’.

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