After understanding this lesson you will be in a position to understand the speech process, realize the importance of conversational skills, grasp strategies of good conversation, know factors of improving fluency and self-expression and use body language.
- Like listening, speaking is also important for effective communication. The speech process includes factors like message, style, audience, encoding, and feedback.
- Speaking is by which people using audible and visible symbols convey their minds to the listeners. It is flexible, changing as well as complex and varied.
- The process is selecting a message, choosing a style, analyzing the listener, encoding the message, getting the feedback and reporting.
Conversational and oral skills
- Conversation is interactive process involving speakers and listeners. It establishes, maintains, improves, and consolidates social as well as professional relations.
- Conversational skills include the ability to start a conversation, choose a topic for conversation. Help others to start, keep a conversation going, move from one topic to another, and concludes conversation naturally
Types of conversation
- There are two types of conversation-formal and informal. They differ in concept, approach, style, and attitude and in language. Formal conversation has formal contents, factual, formal words and expressions are used, based on rules and regulations, customs, norms, structured transitions and turns, approach and are logically organized and structured.
Strategies for good conversation
- For good conversation always be active listener, subtle speaker, speak with clearity, simple, have appropriate pauses, be polite, friendly, positive, flexible, tactful, interested and avoid arguments
Improving fluency and self-expression.
- Articulation (It is a set of speech habits established. An habit of modifying voice and breath), good pronunciation (manner of speaking proper words), voice quality (voice, tone, quality) Accent and intonation (stress on each word and variation in pitch of the voice) are important stretegies.
Eye contact,facial expression,Gestures and Posture and body movements provide non verbal cues.
Non verbal form Non verbal cue
What does it suggest
Eye contact Sustained eye contact Trust, admiration, confidence Brief eye contact Stress, nervousness
Avoid eye contact Fear, shyness, lack of sincerity, mark of respect in some cultures
Eye squinting Antagonism
Facial Expression Raising eyebrows Surprise, question, curiocity Lowering eye brows Acceptance, submission
Furrowed forehead Anger,frustration, displeasure Wide open eyes Surprise, astonishment Open mouth Shock Swallowing Nervousness Frowning Anger, Displeasure
Gesture, Posture Leaning towards a speaker/ listener, pulling away/leaning back Interest Fear, disgust, anger, distrust Gestures
- Gestures be natural,avoid gestures to express negative feeling or confusing feeling,do not reflect nervous mannerirm, keep control of hands and arms, learn cultural patterns,correct postures and body movement
- Practice correct pronunciation. A truly acceptable pronunciation is one that allows the listener to understand the content of a message without being distracted by its form.
- Develop voice quality voice reflects personality. Rhythm in connected speech